30% Quota – A Trouble-Making “Guardian” of EU Content

Zlatitsa Dimitrova, Consuelo Naranjo, Diandra Velica, Bo Pan, Juliane Henn, Özge Akman, Santiago Otalora, Alorila Murataj, Jiaqi Nie

The European Parliament and the Council of Europe have approved an update in the Audiovisual Media Services Directive (AVMSD) The revised AVMSD officially entered into force on 19th December 2018 and aims to guarantee a 30% share of European works on subscription video on demand (SVoD) platforms. The European Parliament declared: “In order to support the cultural diversity of the European audiovisual sector, MEPs ensured that 30% of content in the video-on-demand platforms’ catalogues should be European.” This change is expected to support cultural diversity and promote European production. It could help to fix the existing uneven relationship not only with the American content, but also within Europe itself. As a significant instrument to support European content against American superiority, the 30% quota along with the revised AVSMD will be implemented obligatorily by the member states before the end of 2020. The consequences of it have aroused pervasive debate.

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Rise and Shine Europe – an Insider’s Look into the Creative Market

Francisco Abadia, Eirini Digka, Elena Kutsarova, Carlos Magalhães, Zsofia Meszaros, Valeriia Panova, Savvinna Sinopidou, Maria Trofimova

Interview with Elena Lai

For the past 20 years, technological developments have had a significant impact on the audiovisual landscape, changing competition practices and reshaping the structure of the audiovisual services market. The European Union (EU) faces several challenges to safeguard the viable production of native audiovisual content and boost competitiveness. With the ever-rising digitalization of the audiovisual industry and the emergence of a few dominant players, the European Council have adopted initiatives such as the Audiovisual Media Services Directive (AVMSD) and the Creative Europe program. Both are designed to promote cultural diversity and stimulate European audiovisual production and distribution.

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Media Owners Never Hit the Headlines. How Come?

Panagiota Sdoukou, Lina Dahbour, Camilla Falsetti, Lucas Moore, María Migallón, Evelina Nõmme, Louis Toussaint, Yavuz S. Ugurtas

Transparency over media ownership: What is the status quo in Europe?

“Access Info Europe has carried out a research across Europe and we proved that it is impossible to know who is behind the media” says Helen Darbshire, Excecutive Director, Access Info Europe.

According to the Center for Media Pluralism and Freedom “Media ownership concentration remains one of the most significant risks to media pluralism and is seen as creating barriers to diversity of information and viewpoints.”

Unfortunately, there is no generic answer to the question “what is the state of media ownership transparency in Europe”. Over the past years, there were extreme cases of media manipulation unveiled in Europe, which have sparked a debate on media freedom and media ownership.

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Geo-Blocking is Going to be Banned in EU…But Wait! You Still Can’t Download the Foreign Songs You Like

Blerim Berisha, Yang Cao, Jan Kalina, Ikram Mallou, Thomaz Novaes, Ronald Piwele, Yin Zi

When consumers in EU countries are shouting hooray for EU’s anti-geoblocking regulation finally being passed by European Parliament earlier this year, German MEP Julia Reda undiplomatically expressed her disappointment.


Reda is right. Geo-blocking banishment is working for e-commerce but not for access to other media. EU’s first “baby step” as she called is a great news for online shoppers to buy some goods, such as a refrigerator, some services, or for website hosting services. European consumers will enjoy a price with no difference no matter which EU member state they reside in. But if you are talking about Spotify, Netflix and TV, or any other copyrighted content like music, ebooks, and video games, sorry, the “wall” is still there. This is indeed a big bummer, and we all hate that error message telling us we are in the “wrong” country.

So, what are the main obstacles to tackle for realizing a truly no-barrier digital single market? Is it true that no one is willing to fight against powerful entertainment industry, as Reda claimed? At least EU is aware of the needs of consumers to break the “wall”, addressed that they will extend the geoblocking on copyrighted services in two years. But that sounds a bit long stretch.


While a seamless cross-border access to popular streaming media services sound like a perfect dream to EU digital content consumers, there are indeed some substantial challenges the industry faces in order to reach such a goal. Most of online copyrighted contents in the European market are licensed on a national basis. For many digital content providers, the main reason of geoblocking is due to the expensive cost of buying copyrights covering extra geographic areas. This is even more common for smaller operators. Thus, one argument is that lifting geoblocking might bring unintended consequences to the industry and the market. The industry might suffer significant losses of revenues which will prompt uncertainty for the future, as nobody knows how long it would take for the industry to adapt to this new unrestricted cross-border access. Another concern is it might induce price arbitrage between country markets, which puts pressure on sellers to reduce price differentiation and push some prices up, others down. The price response of sellers is hard to predict and may have repercussions not only on downstream consumers but also on upstream parts of the supply chain.

Cultural diversity is considered as a strong incentive for lifting the digital content geo-blocking, because surveys indicate that one key reason people demand foreign digital content is they could not get it from the country they live in. There are about 20 million EU citizens who were born in one EU member state and live in another member state. Without geo-blocking, many of them could enjoy contents produced and licensed in their home countries. However, studies also show that the longer long-term intra-EU immigrants stay away from their country of origin, the less interest they have to buy audiovisual content of their home country. This is an important measurement for audiovisual business operators. One more concern on the unrestricted cross-border content is that there might be less investment in local production which leads to less diversity. EU citizens from the poorer countries will have to pay higher prices if they want to enjoy good quality content.

So, it seems that Mr. Ansip’s ambition will take quite some time to fulfill. But the future could be hopeful. The good news is that at least EU residents can watch streaming content they have bought in their home country while traveling in EU area, thanks to the new law. Even MEP Reda agreed that copyright is a delicate issue.  European Parliament’s economic assessment on geo-blocking prohibition shows that there will be notable economic and social welfare gains by lifting geo-blocking on audiovisual and copyrighted services, despite the risks and concerns. It will depend on the negotiation and cooperation between the public sector, the industry and society.



The statistics, evidences and study results used in this article are based on the analysis Extending the Scope of the Geo-Blocking Prohibition: An Economic Assessment published by European Parliament in 2017. (could put hyperlink: http://bruegel.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/IPOL_IDA2017595364_EN.pdf)

Is Staying in your Filter Bubble what you really want?

Andrea Ruiz Valencia, Nele Pärje, Maxime Paquin, Jija Bhattacharya, Alice Masoni, Christos Kampolis

The Digital Single Market (DSM) Strategy aims to overcome the fragmentation of the European market and merge 28 markets into a single digital economy. To prepare the digital grounds for the DSM to flourish, several obstacles need to be tackled, one of which revolves around the personalization of the Internet. There is a disturbing phenomenon in the way online platforms operate today, notably the way algorithms predict and select content we want to consume.

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GDPR: Societal Retribution

Merve Bektas, Yasmim Pessoa, Kaia Socha, Laura Basiacco, Justyna Zawada, Artaban Micali Drossos

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We have all undoubtedly seen this request pop up in front of our faces as we navigate literally every website we decide to surf. Let’s be honest, how many of us even know to what exactly we are agreeing to? Yet every day we put our trust in the hands of companies without knowing the specifics of their terms and conditions. The willingness to login quickly, to buy a distinct product, or book an Airbnb overpowers the one of reading the 20 pages dedicated to those terms.


Can someone blame us for not wanting to read those tedious conditions?

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DIGITAL Technologies, DIGITAL laws&Digital Mentality?

How to innovate the European audiovisual and media sector?

Evgeniia Totmianina, Sarah Rungo, Leonardo Scarcella, Guillaume Adamo, Nina van der Giessen, Manuel Perez.

European policy developments and audiovisual markets are under siege: GDPR regulation, the Digital Single Market, and Brexit are at stake. Professors Pawels and Loisen suggests, that after too many partially failed attempts some results leading to a Digital Revolution in the Audiovisual Market are needed. Some insight can be won by looking at digital natives and their use of media and maybe more important, their relationship with media.


“Digital Single Market” emerged as part of the EU Horizon 2020 initiative (2014) and actions within this project offer new challenges and opportunities for broadcasters and service providers. Keeping up with new demands and possibilities in the broadcasting sector, such as “re-distribution and spreading of content among peer-to-peer networks or through any form of social networking as part of a shared media experience” (Ibrus & Rohn, 2016), means that new regulations are needed.

The 2016-2017 agenda, in which innovations to the broadcasting sector are proposed (ICT-19-2017 & ICT-20-2017), deal with copyright issues and content sharing opportunities. Interestingly, the focus on the issue of intended as well as unintended online piracy can mostly be related to how millennials use digital media.

Will the digital single market be the long-awaited answer towards a united European audiovisual market?

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