Rise and Shine Europe – an Insider’s Look into the Creative Market

Francisco Abadia, Eirini Digka, Elena Kutsarova, Carlos Magalhães, Zsofia Meszaros, Valeriia Panova, Savvinna Sinopidou, Maria Trofimova

Interview with Elena Lai

For the past 20 years, technological developments have had a significant impact on the audiovisual landscape, changing competition practices and reshaping the structure of the audiovisual services market. The European Union (EU) faces several challenges to safeguard the viable production of native audiovisual content and boost competitiveness. With the ever-rising digitalization of the audiovisual industry and the emergence of a few dominant players, the European Council have adopted initiatives such as the Audiovisual Media Services Directive (AVMSD) and the Creative Europe program. Both are designed to promote cultural diversity and stimulate European audiovisual production and distribution.

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Journalism in the Digital Storm

Bianca Manelli, Chantal Cocherová, Georgios Evgenidis, Jiahuan He, Lara Corrado, Suhasni      Midha, Yuliia Hladka, Zeynep Atilgan Ozgenc

What is news? What makes somebody a journalist? In the era of social media and blogs, the answers to these questions are not as clear as they were 10 years ago. With professional journalism still struggling to work through the digitalization of media, the rise of citizen journalism challenges the definition of both news and journalist.

Citizen smartphone journalism

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Media Owners Never Hit the Headlines. How Come?

Panagiota Sdoukou, Lina Dahbour, Camilla Falsetti, Lucas Moore, María Migallón, Evelina Nõmme, Louis Toussaint, Yavuz S. Ugurtas

Transparency over media ownership: What is the status quo in Europe?

“Access Info Europe has carried out a research across Europe and we proved that it is impossible to know who is behind the media” says Helen Darbshire, Excecutive Director, Access Info Europe.

According to the Center for Media Pluralism and Freedom “Media ownership concentration remains one of the most significant risks to media pluralism and is seen as creating barriers to diversity of information and viewpoints.”

Unfortunately, there is no generic answer to the question “what is the state of media ownership transparency in Europe”. Over the past years, there were extreme cases of media manipulation unveiled in Europe, which have sparked a debate on media freedom and media ownership.

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AI vs. GDPR: Finding the Balance Between Ethics and Innovation

Isadora Tostes de Souza Barros, Busra Islek, Ruya Ince, Abeera Junaid Aslam, Réka Zsuzsanna Szitter, Eleftheria Katsi, Marta Soliño, Ceren Yaycili and Oyinkansola Awolo

The strict rules of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) are likely to have a serious impact on the competitiveness of the Artificial Intelligence (AI) sector in Europe. The European Commission wants to assure customers and foreign investors with its EU strategy for AI that aims for the creation of European AI models that operate “ethically”. Although an ambitious AI strategy, it disregards the complexity of the new technologies and could potentially leave the EU behind in the AI race.

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Is Media Capture the Chief Culprit in Hindering Media Independence?

Greta Bitante, Nadine Lakhal, Jinhong Park, Laura Sanz, Mengzhi Zeng, Ieva Zinovičiūtė

Without any doubt, media capture has quickly become one of the world’s most difficult and intractable problems. In a growing number of countries, collusion between governments and wealthy media owners is becoming the preferred method of political consolidation and for maintaining the power of a small elite. Aggravated by the economic weakness of the traditional news business and the growing concentration of ownership of media industries, media capture has become one of the major tools for undermining democratic societies and handing them over to authoritarian rule.

It is well known that in some authoritarian regimes, media are often biased. The lack of media independence generally has to do with media capture by political interests. In countries such as Turkey, Russia or Egypt, media outlets are mostly state-owned and the content being published is strictly controlled, which goes totally against democratic values and freedom of expression. However, media capture is not the same as censorship imposed from a State, since it operates through collaboration between media owners and the State. As Andrew Finkel argues, captured media often chases its audiences with screaming headlines, political intrigue, with the aim of influencing a large number of people while maintaining the favour of the Government.

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Press Freedom Status in Turkey: From Free to Not Free

Anna-Katharina Ahnefeld, Oyumaa Batsukh, Merve Keçeli, Yu-Hsuan Lin and Man Wai Tam

Independent journalism in Turkey is now at its darkest moment. In merely a decade, the country has turned from a place with improving press freedom to a prison for journalists. In 2004, Turkey stood 98 among 167 countries on the press freedom ranking released by Reporters Without Borders. In 2018, the number dropped to 157. The drastic decline in press freedom, together with the rising authoritarian ruling, has made Turkey the most freedom-deteriorating country in the world.

As of May 11, there are 192 journalists jailed, 142 wanted in Turkey. While the upcoming Presidential Election on June 24 is showing intense competition, candidates from opposition parties are heavily oppressed and the Turkish media are forced to give unanimous voice.  Selahattin Demirtaş, presidential candidate from People’s Democratic Party (HDP), has been running his campaign from the jail. TRT (Turkish Radio and Television Corporation), the national broadcaster, is criticized for only broadcasting mass meetings held by the current President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. Another candidate, Meral Akşener from İYİ Party, claims that news workers at a television channel were fired only because of broadcasting her mass meeting for 10 seconds.

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Trolls, Bots…And Terrorists?

Maartje van Leeuwen, Nora Romanova, Max Årstad Knutsen , Alaa Jbour,  Erkan Yildiz and Aslihan Okyay

Social media is a powerful weapon, it can be used as a tool to shape opinions, attitudes and even behaviors. In today’s information environment, there are numerous opportunities to share radical content online. Proclaimed states and terrorist groups have quickly adapted the new information environment by using social media for disseminating propaganda to achieve political objectives, plan operations and reach large audiences to gain their support.

Bots and the Spread of Illegal Content Online

One of the most worrying phenomenon on social media platforms is the spread of computer generated content by ‘bots’, the most commonly used medium for bot activity is Twitter. Twitter has certain benefits as it reaches large audiences and is easy to use, while it keeps anonymity and allows a fast recovery from suspended accounts. Terrorist bots have been designed to misinform and manipulate social media users. These accounts can disseminate, share and retweet information in great amounts and with great speed. Furthermore, these automatic generated profiles are capable of interacting with each other, thus appearing more credible for Twitter users. Researchers have uncovered that terrorist groups have adjusted their twitter behavior in such a way as to ensure that the deactivation of their initial posts do not affect the spread of their message. And furthermore they have adjusted their media techniques in order to achieve maximum viral reach. They no longer need the traditional gatekeepers of the media to spread their message. This means that these gatekeepers have lost their protected status.

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